# THER06001 2019 Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics Introduction

### General Details

Full Title
Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics Introduction
Transcript Title
Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechani
Code
THER06001
Attendance
N/A %
Subject Area
THER - Thermodynamics
Department
MENG - Mech. and Electronic Eng.
Level
06 - NFQ Level 6
Credit
05 - 05 Credits
Duration
Semester
Fee
Start Term
2019 - Full Academic Year 2019-20
End Term
9999 - The End of Time
Author(s)
John Casserly, Molua Donohoe, Declan Sheridan, Gerard McGranaghan
Programme Membership
SG_EMECL_B07 201900 Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering SG_EPREC_B07 201900 Bachelor of Engineering in Precision Engineering and Design SG_EMECL_C06 201900 Higher Certificate in Engineering in Mechanical Engineering
Description

This module introduces the basic concepts used in Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.

The thermodynamics section has been designed to provide the student with sufficient tools and knowledge to solve basic real world power and efficiency problems.

Fluid mechanics is strongly biased towards the requirements of mechanical engineering, manipulation of force vectors understanding of pressures, hydraulic gradients, principles of fluid flow and forces exerted by fluids.

### Learning Outcomes

On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;

1.

Introduction to science of thermodynamics, history, and basic concepts.Why is thermodynamics important to engineers and physicists. What is heat, and what does temperature actually measure and what does it mean.

2.

Basic chemistry, the structure of the atom, bonding, and balancing chemical equations

3.

Describe the zeroth, first, second and third laws of thermodynamics. Introduce enthalpy, entropy.

4.

Describe internal combustion engine cycles and analyse combustion of hydrocarbons using the air standard Otto and Diesel cycles.

5.

Solve problems involving conduction, convection and radiation

6.

Perform simple combustion chemical analysis to determine the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio for commonly used fuels.

7.

Determine pressure variation with elevation for a static fluid mass.

8.

Describe various pressure measuring devices.

9.

Determine the fluid force on a surface submerged in a static fluid mass.

10.

Analyse problems involving buoyancy.

11.

Describe viscosity, boundary layer formation, laminar and turbulent flow.

12.

Apply the Bernoulli equation to a variety of flow situations

13.

Determine the head loss in a straight pipe

### Teaching and Learning Strategies

The students will attend classes and some demonstrations. There will be a mid term assessment to ensure they are keeping up with the material.

### Module Assessment Strategies

Continuous Assessment 30%, Final Exam 70%

### Repeat Assessments

Repeat exam in August.

### Indicative Syllabus

Thermodynamics

Fundamentals: origin of thermodynamics, temperature, work and heat transfer.

Thermodynamics Laws: zeroth law, first law - enthalpy, second law - entropy: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, third law.

Engine cycles: description of 4-stroke SI and CI engine cycles.  Air standard cycles: Otto, Diesel and calculations of temperatures, pressures and specific volumes at each stage.

Basic Chemistry: structure of the atom, how covalent and ionic bonds are formed, and balancing of chemical equations.

Chemical reactions: what is combustion, common fuels, stoichiometry, combustion equations, air/fuel ratios.

Heat Transfer: conduction; Fourier's law, Convection; Newton's law of cooling, determination of convection heat transfer coefficient from empirical equations.  Radiation; Stefan-Boltzmann law, emissivity, combined heat transfer coefficient.

Fluid Mechanics

Fundamentals:  definition of fluid, pressure; units of pressure, gauge pressure, atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure.  Vapour pressure, relative density, surface tension, capillary action, bulk modulus, compressibility and incompressibility.

Basic fluid statics:  Pascal's law, variation of pressure with position.

Pressure measurement:  Piezometers,  manometers, differential manometers pitot tubes, Bourdon gauge, pressure transducers, barometer: mercury filled, aneroid.

Forces on submerged surface:  plane surface, method of sections and estimation of depth to centre of pressure. Turning moment on a submerge vertical sluice gate.

Buoyancy:  buoyancy forces. Archemedes principle, stability of floating bodies, metacentre, centre of buoyancy.

Viscosity: Newton's law of viscosity, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, units of viscosity, viscosity and oiled bearings.

Laminar and turbulent flow:  Reynolds number,Laminar flow , turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Viscous flow, non-viscous flow.

Basic flow equations:   Volumetric flow rate, mass flow rates, Continuity equation, Bernoulli's equation, total energy line, hydraulic grade line, hydraulic gradient.

Laminar flow in pipes: Typical Laminar flow fluids, velocity profile, estimation of pipe losses in laminar flow (Hagen-Poiseuille's equation).

Turbulent flow in pipes: Typical Turbulent flow fluids, energy loss (Darcy's formula), friction factor, shock losses in pipelines, Borda-Carnot equation.

Momentum principle: Momentum equation, forces exerted on pipe bends, forces exerted on flat plates by a free jet.

1) Pressure measurement using a piezometer, manometer and Bourdon gauge

2) Estimation of the Hydrostatic thrust on a submerged object.

3) Estimation of the buoyancy force on a floating pontoon. Use Archemedes principal to estimate the weight of teh pontoon.

4) Estimate Reynolds Number for a laminar, transitional and turbulent flow.

5) Estimate the hydraulic gradient in a pipe section for a number of flow rates.

6) Estimate the shock looses in a pipeline system for smooth bends , sharp bends, expansion points, contraction points and at valves.

### Coursework & Assessment Breakdown

Coursework & Continuous Assessment
30 %
End of Semester / Year Formal Exam
70 %

### Coursework Assessment

Title Type Form Percent Week Learning Outcomes Assessed
1 Continuous Assessment Continuous Assessment UNKNOWN 30 % OnGoing 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13

### End of Semester / Year Assessment

Title Type Form Percent Week Learning Outcomes Assessed
1 Final Exam Final Exam Final Exam UNKNOWN 70 % End of Term 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13

Type Location Description Hours Frequency Avg Workload
Lecture Lecture Theatre Lecture 4 Weekly 4.00
Practical Science Laboratory Thermodyanics practical 1 Fortnightly 0.50
Independent Learning UNKNOWN Study 2 Weekly 2.00
Laboratory Practical Science Laboratory Fluid Mechanics practical 1 Fortnightly 0.50
Total Full Time Average Weekly Learner Contact Time 5.00 Hours

### Required & Recommended Book List 1996-01-01 Solving Problems in Fluid Mechanics Addison-Wesley Longman
ISBN 0582239877 ISBN-13 9780582239876

The book provides a wealth of basic fluid mechanics theory developed through worked solutions. In addition, the chapters open with some brief competency statements and conclude with a chapter summary of outcomes. In many chapters there are applications examples which will involves students in main project work in the library, laboratory or at home.

### Module Resources

Non ISBN Literary Resources

 Authors Title Publishers Year Y. Cengel and M. Boles Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach McGraw-Hill 2007 Borgnakke, and Sonntag Fundamentals of thermodynamics Wiley 2009 Hearne E. J. Mechanics of Materials Butterworks Heinemann 2012 Hibbeler R. C. Mechanics of Materials Prentice Hall 2010

 Authors Title Publishers Year Peter Atkens The laws of thermodynamics: a very short introduction Oxford 2010 Merle Potter and Craig Somerton Thermodynamics for engineers McGraw-Hill 2006 Michael Moran and Howard Shapiro Fundamentals of Engineering thermodynamics Wiley 2010 Kondepudi Introduction to modern thermodynamics Wiley 2008 D.H. Bacon and R.C. Stephens Mechanical Technology Butterworth-Heinemann 1998 G. Rogers and Y. Mayhew Engineering Thermodynamics: Work and Heat Transfer Longman Group UK Limited 1992
Journal Resources

N/A

URL Resources

N/A

Other Resources

None