THER06001 2019 Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics Introduction
This module introduces the basic concepts used in Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
The thermodynamics section has been designed to provide the student with sufficient tools and knowledge to solve basic real world power and efficiency problems.
Fluid mechanics is strongly biased towards the requirements of mechanical engineering, manipulation of force vectors understanding of pressures, hydraulic gradients, principles of fluid flow and forces exerted by fluids.
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;
Introduction to science of thermodynamics, history, and basic concepts.Why is thermodynamics important to engineers and physicists. What is heat, and what does temperature actually measure and what does it mean.
Basic chemistry, the structure of the atom, bonding, and balancing chemical equations
Describe the zeroth, first, second and third laws of thermodynamics. Introduce enthalpy, entropy.
Describe internal combustion engine cycles and analyse combustion of hydrocarbons using the air standard Otto and Diesel cycles.
Solve problems involving conduction, convection and radiation
Perform simple combustion chemical analysis to determine the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio for commonly used fuels.
Determine pressure variation with elevation for a static fluid mass.
Describe various pressure measuring devices.
Determine the fluid force on a surface submerged in a static fluid mass.
Analyse problems involving buoyancy.
Describe viscosity, boundary layer formation, laminar and turbulent flow.
Apply the Bernoulli equation to a variety of flow situations
Determine the head loss in a straight pipe
Teaching and Learning Strategies
The students will attend classes and some demonstrations. There will be a mid term assessment to ensure they are keeping up with the material.
Module Assessment Strategies
Continuous Assessment 30%, Final Exam 70%
Repeat Assessments
Repeat exam in August.
Indicative Syllabus
Thermodynamics
Fundamentals: origin of thermodynamics, temperature, work and heat transfer.
Thermodynamics Laws: zeroth law, first law - enthalpy, second law - entropy: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, third law.
Engine cycles: description of 4-stroke SI and CI engine cycles. Air standard cycles: Otto, Diesel and calculations of temperatures, pressures and specific volumes at each stage.
Basic Chemistry: structure of the atom, how covalent and ionic bonds are formed, and balancing of chemical equations.
Chemical reactions: what is combustion, common fuels, stoichiometry, combustion equations, air/fuel ratios.
Heat Transfer: conduction; Fourier's law, Convection; Newton's law of cooling, determination of convection heat transfer coefficient from empirical equations. Radiation; Stefan-Boltzmann law, emissivity, combined heat transfer coefficient.
Fluid Mechanics
Fundamentals: definition of fluid, pressure; units of pressure, gauge pressure, atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure. Vapour pressure, relative density, surface tension, capillary action, bulk modulus, compressibility and incompressibility.
Basic fluid statics: Pascal's law, variation of pressure with position.
Pressure measurement: Piezometers, manometers, differential manometers pitot tubes, Bourdon gauge, pressure transducers, barometer: mercury filled, aneroid.
Forces on submerged surface: plane surface, method of sections and estimation of depth to centre of pressure. Turning moment on a submerge vertical sluice gate.
Buoyancy: buoyancy forces. Archemedes principle, stability of floating bodies, metacentre, centre of buoyancy.
Viscosity: Newton's law of viscosity, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, units of viscosity, viscosity and oiled bearings.
Laminar and turbulent flow: Reynolds number,Laminar flow , turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Viscous flow, non-viscous flow.
Basic flow equations: Volumetric flow rate, mass flow rates, Continuity equation, Bernoulli's equation, total energy line, hydraulic grade line, hydraulic gradient.
Laminar flow in pipes: Typical Laminar flow fluids, velocity profile, estimation of pipe losses in laminar flow (Hagen-Poiseuille's equation).
Turbulent flow in pipes: Typical Turbulent flow fluids, energy loss (Darcy's formula), friction factor, shock losses in pipelines, Borda-Carnot equation.
Momentum principle: Momentum equation, forces exerted on pipe bends, forces exerted on flat plates by a free jet.
1) Pressure measurement using a piezometer, manometer and Bourdon gauge
2) Estimation of the Hydrostatic thrust on a submerged object.
3) Estimation of the buoyancy force on a floating pontoon. Use Archemedes principal to estimate the weight of teh pontoon.
4) Estimate Reynolds Number for a laminar, transitional and turbulent flow.
5) Estimate the hydraulic gradient in a pipe section for a number of flow rates.
6) Estimate the shock looses in a pipeline system for smooth bends , sharp bends, expansion points, contraction points and at valves.
Coursework & Assessment Breakdown
Coursework Assessment
Title | Type | Form | Percent | Week | Learning Outcomes Assessed | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
1 | Continuous Assessment | Continuous Assessment | UNKNOWN | 30 % | OnGoing | 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 |
End of Semester / Year Assessment
Title | Type | Form | Percent | Week | Learning Outcomes Assessed | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
1 | Final Exam Final Exam | Final Exam | UNKNOWN | 70 % | End of Term | 2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13 |
Full Time Mode Workload
Type | Location | Description | Hours | Frequency | Avg Workload |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lecture | Lecture Theatre | Lecture | 4 | Weekly | 4.00 |
Practical | Science Laboratory | Thermodyanics practical | 1 | Fortnightly | 0.50 |
Independent Learning | UNKNOWN | Study | 2 | Weekly | 2.00 |
Laboratory Practical | Science Laboratory | Fluid Mechanics practical | 1 | Fortnightly | 0.50 |
Required & Recommended Book List
1996-01-01 Solving Problems in Fluid Mechanics Addison-Wesley Longman
ISBN 0582239877 ISBN-13 9780582239876
The book provides a wealth of basic fluid mechanics theory developed through worked solutions. In addition, the chapters open with some brief competency statements and conclude with a chapter summary of outcomes. In many chapters there are applications examples which will involves students in main project work in the library, laboratory or at home.
Module Resources
Essential Reading:
Authors |
Title |
Publishers |
Year |
Y. Cengel and M. Boles |
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach |
McGraw-Hill |
2007 |
Borgnakke, and Sonntag |
Fundamentals of thermodynamics |
Wiley |
2009 |
Hearne E. J. |
Mechanics of Materials |
Butterworks Heinemann |
2012 |
Hibbeler R. C. |
Mechanics of Materials |
Prentice Hall |
2010 |
Recomended Reading
Authors |
Title |
Publishers |
Year |
Peter Atkens |
The laws of thermodynamics: a very short introduction |
Oxford |
2010 |
Merle Potter and Craig Somerton |
Thermodynamics for engineers |
McGraw-Hill |
2006 |
Michael Moran and Howard Shapiro |
Fundamentals of Engineering thermodynamics |
Wiley |
2010 |
Kondepudi |
Introduction to modern thermodynamics |
Wiley |
2008 |
D.H. Bacon and R.C. Stephens |
Mechanical Technology |
Butterworth-Heinemann |
1998 |
G. Rogers and Y. Mayhew |
Engineering Thermodynamics: Work and Heat Transfer |
Longman Group UK Limited |
1992 |
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