SOC08012 2017 Health, the Body and Society
This module will examine theoretical and applied debates in the areas of health and illness. It is concerned with all those aspects of contemporary social life which impinge upon well‑being throughout the life‑course demonstrating that from the moment we are conceived to the time that we die, social processes impact on our health and well‑being. Most of us will carry out health work at some stage in our lives which may take the form of caring for relatives, children, partners, and parents and of course ourselves. It is the sociological analysis of topics such as these which form the core of this module. The sociology of health and illness must also be understood in terms of its relation to the dominant paradigm of Western medicine: biomedicine. This module explains how many of the central concerns of the sociology of health and illness have emerged as reactions to and critiques of this paradigm.
This module maps to the CORU standards of proficiency below:
• Domain 1: Professional Autonomy and Accountability
• Domain 2: Communication, Collaborative Practice and Team working
• Domain 3: Safety & Quality
• Domain 4: Professional Development
• Domain 5: Professional Knowledge and Skills
On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;
Critique the main features of biomedicine
Explain the main theoretical underpinnings of the sociology of health and illness. (Domain: 1.18, 4.1)
Understand lay health beliefs, lifestyles and risk. (Domain: 1.15, 2.6, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 5.5, 5.7, 5.15, 5.17)
Conceptualise experiences of chronic illness and disability. (Domain: 1.8, 2.6, 2.16, 3.6, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 5.5, 5.7, 5.15, 5.17)
Delineate key debates in sociology of the body (Domain 2.6, 4.1, 4.3)
Teaching and Learning Strategies
Teaching and learning strategies are interactive, peer-based and delivered in a group format.
Module Assessment Strategies
There are two components to the assessment:
- Class Presentation
- Case Study
The module assessment allows for assessment of CORU Standards of Proficiency as follows:
Class Presentation: Domain 1.8, 1.15, 1.18, 2.6, 2.16, 3.6, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 5.5, 5.7, 5.15, 5.17
Case Study:Domain 1.8, 1.15, 1.18, 2.6, 2.16, 3.6, 4.1, 4.3, 4.4, 5.5, 5.7, 5.15, 5.17
This module builds upon previous modules. It aims to develop in students the ability to critique the neo‑liberal emphasis on the individual as being entirely responsible for their health care; on the inequalities associated with health, and on dominant assumptions in both the medical and social models of care. The module will focus on a number of current health care issue in contemporary Western societies including the ‘obesity’; health across the life-course; and health funding. We will also address the consequences of dominant understandings of health and illness for policy responses nationally and internationally. Students will be encouraged to select their own health issue and present a project on the topic.
The Social Construction of Medical Knowledge
Here students are introduced to the biomedical model underpinning Western medicine. We will address the assumptions under which this model has persisted including the mind/body dualism; the mechanical metaphor; the technological imperative; reductionism; and the doctrine of specific aetiology. Drawing from Foucault and feminist writings, we challenge these assumptions and explore how discourses and power have intersected to generate dominant paradigms.
Lay Health Beliefs, Lifestyles and Risk
Lawton (2003) explains that while sociologists have long studied aspects of illness, it has only been relatively recently that they have turned their attention to the development of the sociology of health. However, there is much discussion in society today addressing questions on what is health, how can I be healthy, what is a healthy lifestyle? In this section, we explore the concept of health arguing that such exploration must take account of lay perspectives. We also address how people maintain health through an examination of lifestyles. Finally, a key facet of contemporary societies is a concern with risk. We explore definitions of risk drawing from Beck and Giddens and look at its relationship to health status.
Experiences of Chronic Illness and Disability
, 2006:71). Sociologists have become increasingly concerned with experiences of illness where illness is seen as both NettletonMany argue that in Western industrialised societies, chronic conditions are becoming increasingly common. Such conditions have massive implications beyond biophysical changes. But biophysical changes have significant social consequences. In this section, we examine how illness reminds us that the 'normal' functioning of our minds and bodies is central to social action and interaction (private trouble and of much public concern. We investigate two main ways sociologists have addressed chronic illness: functionalism and interpretivism. The former includes analysis of the 'sick role' and the latter draws explicitly from Arthur Frank (1995) narratives of illness.
The Sociology of the Body
The importance of the body to the sociology of health and illness is in many ways very obvious. Illness can limit the functioning of the body. Health is increasingly conceptualised in terms of body maintenance: dieting, exercising, avoidance of unhealthy products. Medical science has enabled individuals to completely alter the body in ways previously unimaginable. This section explores the tensions evident in how we regulate, manage, dispose of, display, work and look upon bodies. In particular, we return to a central theme in this module: how medical and scientific descriptions of the biological basis of bodies are socially constructed and may be used for ideological purposes such as maintaining of widespread inequalities in health.
Coursework & Assessment Breakdown
|Title||Type||Form||Percent||Week||Learning Outcomes Assessed|
|1||Class Presentation||Continuous Assessment||Project||40 %||Week 6||1,2|
|2||Case Study||Continuous Assessment||Assessment||60 %||End of Semester||3,4,5|
Full Time Mode Workload
Cleary, A. and M. Treacy (1997) The Sociology of Health and Illness in Ireland. Dublin: University College Dublin Press
Davis-Floyd, R. (1992) Birth as an American Rite of Passage. Berkeley: University of California Press
Frank, A. (1995) The Wounded Storyteller. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press
Gatrell, A. and S. Elliott (2009) Geographies of Health. London: Wiley‑Blackwell. 2nd edition
Germov, J. and L. Williams (2008) A Sociology of Food and Nutrition. London: Oxford. 3rd edition
Hyde, A. (2004) Sociology for Health Professionals in Ireland. Dublin: IPA
Nettleton, S. (2013) The Sociology of Health and Illness. Cambridge: Polity. 3rd Edition
Palmer, G. (2009) The Politics of Breastfeeding: When Breasts Are Bad for Business. London: Pinter and Martin
Peterson, A. and D. Lupton (1996) The New Public Health. London: Sage
Share, P., M. Corcoran and B. Conway (2012) A Sociology of Ireland. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan. 4th edition
Williams, S. and G. Bendelow (1998) The Lived Body. London: Routledge
Sociology of Health and Illness (Journal)
Gender & Society (Journal)
Detailed Readings will be indicated in class