SAFE08040 2019 Behavioural Based Safety Programs

General Details

Full Title
Behavioural Based Safety Programs
Transcript Title
Behavioural Based Safety Progr
N/A %
Subject Area
SAFE - Safety Studies
ESCI - Environmental Science
08 - NFQ Level 8
05 - 05 Credits
Start Term
2019 - Full Academic Year 2019-20
End Term
9999 - The End of Time
Edel Costello, Margaret McCallig, John Crummy
Programme Membership
SG_SOCCU_H08 201900 Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Science in Occupational Safety and Health SG_SOCCU_K08 201900 Level 8 Honours Degree Add-on in Science in Occupational Safety and Health

The aims of this module are to consider and evaluate behavioual based safety approaches in the workplace and to consider best practice in the development, delivery of these programs.

Learning Outcomes

On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;


Demonstrate knowledge in key concepts and theories relating to behavioural and belief based safety approaches


Recognise  behavioural based approaches and their application to the workplace


Review  evidence based literature on behavioural based safety


Examine  best practice in behavioural based safety.


Evaluate  behavioural based safety programs

Teaching and Learning Strategies

This module will be delivered full-time.

This will include lectures and may include site visits, augmented by independent learning and directed learning.

This approach is expected to address student learning needs.

Moodle will be used as a repository of educational resources and as a means of assessment (e.g. quizzes, uploading assignments and journals).

Module Assessment Strategies

This module is 30% Continuous assessment and 70% Final Exam

Short answer questions quiz (10%) shall take place on specific topics within module towards mid to end of semester.

Individual research report assignment (20%): Reviewing evidence based literature, examining best practice in and evaluating behavioural based safety programs​​ and will be submitted via Moodle towards the end of the semester.

Final exam (70%) at end of term.

Repeat Assessments

Repeat Continuous Assessment and/or Final Exam

Module Dependencies


Indicative Syllabus

1. Demonstrate knowledge in Key concepts and theories relating to behavioural and belief based safety approaches

  • Concepts and developments in Behaviour Based Safety Approaches and BBS management
  • Evaluating Safety Culture, Climate for Behavioural Based Safety

2. Recognise behavioural based approaches and their application to the workplace

  • Leadership and BBS approaches
  • Perceptions, beliefs and attitudes as a measurement tool.
  • Models for behavioural based safety Approaches.  ABC Model, Define, Observe, Intervene and Test

3. Review evidence based literature on behavioural based safety

  • Reports, case studies, journals, articles, etc

4. Examine best practice in behavioural based safety

  • Reports, case studies, journals, articles, etc 

5. Evaluate behavioural based safety programs

  • Evaluating Safety Culture, Climate for Behavioural Based Safety
  • Evaluating BBS programs
  • Reports, case studies, journals, articles, etc

Coursework & Assessment Breakdown

Coursework & Continuous Assessment
30 %
End of Semester / Year Formal Exam
70 %

Coursework Assessment

Title Type Form Percent Week Learning Outcomes Assessed
1 Short answer questions on specific topics within module Continuous Assessment Closed Book Exam 10 % OnGoing 1,2,3,4
2 Research Assignment: Reviewing evidence based literature, examining best practice in and evaluating behavioural based safety programs Continuous Assessment Assignment 20 % OnGoing 3,4,5

End of Semester / Year Assessment

Title Type Form Percent Week Learning Outcomes Assessed
1 Final Exam Final Exam Closed Book Exam 70 % End of Term 1,2,3,4,5

Full Time Mode Workload

Type Location Description Hours Frequency Avg Workload
Lecture Flat Classroom Lecture 2 Weekly 2.00
Independent Learning Not Specified Self directed study 5 Weekly 5.00
Total Full Time Average Weekly Learner Contact Time 2.00 Hours

Required & Recommended Book List

Recommended Reading
2017-06-07 A Definitive Guide to Behavioural Safety Taylor & Francis
ISBN 9781317236078 ISBN-13 1317236076

This book makes the case that far too much work undertaken under the banner of behavioural safety is overly person-focused. If you can walk on hot coals, you can do anything so be safe needs to be dismissed out of hand, but also more advanced techniques based on coaching and empowerment fail to reflect the fact that, as Just Culture models show, the great majority of causes of unsafe behaviour are environmental. Our methodologies mustnt focus on the person with an open mind that there may be an underlying root cause; they must start from the statistically proven assumption that there is an underlying cause. This shift in mindset has a profound impact on the type of methodologies we must lead with, how they are used, how they are perceived, and last but certainly not least, their efficacy. A Definitive Guide to Behavioural Safety is a one-stop guide to all of the core theories and principles that underpin behaviour-based safety. All front-line behaviours that lead to incidents and injury are covered by the term behavioural safety, and getting to grips with the behaviours that might lead people to engage in unsafe or risky behaviour is crucial to prevention. In this book, internationally acclaimed behavioural safety expert Tim Marsh leads the reader through the three main strands: The awareness approach. The walk-and-talk approach. The Six Sigma safety or the Deming-inspired full approach. Going through the very latest innovations in the field, the book covers the systemic approach to safety observation, measurement, intervention and analysis, but also incorporates emotional intelligence training aimed at enhancing supervisorworker trust and communication more generally. A Definite Guide to Behavioural Safety is a perfect guide for any professional, whether youre aiming to set up an ambitious and wide-ranging behavioural safety programme from scratch or youre looking to refresh or extend an existing approach.

Recommended Reading
2017-06-06 Lean Behavior-Based Safety Sce Press
ISBN 0692868267 ISBN-13 9780692868263

In 2001, ProAct Safety introduced Lean BBS(R) as a major update to traditional behavior-based safety (BBS) models with a focus on providing new value with more efficient, safer work. Simply put, Lean BBS focuses on adding value to employees rather than trying to control them. Lean BBS addresses the four major issues found within the average behavior-based safety process: 1.BBS provides successful results for many organizations, but they are looking for a way to take the process to the next level. The Lean BBS methodology takes them there. 2.Some are adamantly against BBS for a number of reasons (union resistance, questionable implementations, cookie-cutter and inflexible approaches, etc.). Lean BBS gains bargaining unit support, is fit-for-purpose and customized to the realities of each organization. 3.Organizations with vastly different processes from site to site want to bring uniformity across the company. Simply changing from one methodology to another is not appealing nor rational. Implementing a more efficient Lean BBS model was both appealing and a rational solution to encourage the processes to evolve towards value-add. 4.Some hesitate to pursue BBS due to high costs and demand on internal resources to operate the process. Lean BBS provides an alternative that addresses these concerns due to the hyper focus on efficiency and ensuring value-add. While several version of BBS have been around since the 1980s, few of them have truly adapted to the changing environment in which they must operate. The Lean BBS process has not only evolved, but continues to do so with each customized implementation. Making BBS fit your culture, operations and logistical realities, rather than trying to make your company fit some idealistic model, is a key to success in today's realities. From the authors of bestselling books on the future of safety excellence, safety strategy, culture and leadership, explore how to put the principles of Lean BBS to work in your operations. Discover the new realities of behavior-based safety.

Recommended Reading
2017 Actively Caring for People's Safety
ISBN 0939874105 ISBN-13 9780939874101
Recommended Reading
2013 Talking Safety Gower Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN 9781409466550 ISBN-13 1409466558

Talking Safety summarises, in a short user-friendly read, the key element of safety leadership - the management and supervisor 'walk and talk'. Safety standards are set by a combination of three things: first, the basic systems: risk assessments, procedures, training, inductions and maintenance; second, the amount of objective learning about the inevitable weaknesses in these systems achieved from a 'Just Culture' perspective; and third, the quality of 'transformational' safety leadership which means coaching not telling, praising not criticising, leading by example and maximising front-line ownership and involvement. A good 'walk and talk' is the only methodology that covers all of these issues and really should be embedded as 'part of the way we do things around here'. It is the centrepiece of any world class safety culture.

Recommended Reading
2011 Occupational Health and Safety Gower Publishing, Ltd.
ISBN 0566089831 ISBN-13 9780566089831

The International Labour Organization (ILO) estimates that every year there are 2.2 million fatal and 270 million non-fatal accidents or occupational diseases worldwide. Occupational Health and Safety looks at the research into what causes accidents and errors in the workplace. Emphasizing the psychological and behavioural aspects of risk in organizations, it includes case studies and best practices. The contributors to this volume come from various countries, reflecting unique interest and knowledge in particular areas.

Recommended Reading
2010-10-13 Modern Construction CRC Press
ISBN 1420063138 ISBN-13 9781420063134

During the past several decades, the manufacturing and service industries significantly increased their levels of productivity, quality, and profitability through the application of process improvement techniques and information technology. Unfortunately, the construction industry lags far behind in the application of performance improvement and optimization techniques, as well as its overall competitiveness. Written by Lincoln H. Forbes and Syed M. Ahmed, both highly regarded for leadership and innovation, Modern Construction: Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices offers cutting-edge lean tools and other productive strategies for the management of people and processes in the construction industry. Drs. Forbes and Ahmed focus mainly on lean construction methodologies, such as The Last Planner(R) System, The Lean Project Delivery System (TM), and Integrated Project Delivery(TM). The tools and strategies offered draw on the success of the world-renowned Toyota Production System (TPS) adapted to the construction environment by construction professionals and researchers involved in developing and advocating lean construction methods. The book also discusses why true lean construction can best occur when all the construction stakeholders, owners, designers, constructors, and material suppliers are committed to the concept of optimizing the flow of activities holistically while de-emphasizing their self-interest. The authors also reintroduce process improvement approaches such as TQM and Six Sigma as a foundation for the adoption of lean methodologies, and demonstrate how these methods can improve projects in a so-called traditional environment. The book integrates these methods with emerging interest in "green construction" and the use of information technology and Building Information Modeling (BIM), while recognizing the human element in relation to motivation, safety, and environmental stresses. Written specifically for professionals in an industry that desperately needs to play catch up, the book delineates cutting-edge approaches with the benefit of successful cases and explains how their deployment can improve construction performance and competitiveness.

Recommended Reading
2009-09-01 Behavioral Safety
ISBN 0984203907 ISBN-13 9780984203901
Recommended Reading
2007-01-01 Impact of Behavior-based Safety Techniques on Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers Transportation Research Board
ISBN 9780309098762 ISBN-13 0309098769

TRB's Commercial Truck and Bus Safety Synthesis Program (CTBSSP) Synthesis 11: Impact of Behavior-Based Safety Techniques on Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers explores various strategies designed to increase safety-related driving behaviors and decrease at-risk driving behaviors of commercial motor vehicle drivers. The report also examines innovative and successful behavior-based safety practices in commercial vehicle settings.

Recommended Reading
2007 Human Factors and Behavioural Safety Routledge
ISBN 9780750681551 ISBN-13 0750681551

Accidents and cases of occupational ill-health are commonly associated with aspects of human behaviour and the potential for human error. Human Factors and Behavioural Safety is not written for psychologists, but instead gives health and safety professionals and students a broad overview of human factors and those aspects of human behaviour which have a direct effect on health and safety performance within organisations. Particular attention is paid to: * the role of the organisation in promoting safe behaviour * the sensory and perceptual processes of people * behavioural factors, such as attitude, motivation and personality * the process of attitude change * theories of personal risk taking and accident * the importance of good communication, change management and stress management * Covers the general principles of these inter-related subjects in one affordable volume * Written for a wide variety of vocational and academic health and safety courses as well as health and safety professionals, safety representatives, HR managers, management consultants, directors and senior managers * Includes checklists, key point summaries, a glossary and further reading recommendations

Recommended Reading
2006 Principles of Everyday Behavior Analysis Wadsworth Publishing Company
ISBN 053459994X ISBN-13 9780534599942

Ideal for the freshman- and sophomore-level Behavioral Modification or Applied Behavior Analysis course, Miller's text uses generalization programming to teach students how to apply behavioral concepts to complex everyday situations. The author introduces, defines, and illustrates each behavior modification concept and then immediately engages students with recall questions and vignettes that show how to apply concepts to the real world.

Recommended Reading
2001 Safety Management Amer Society of Safety Engineers
ISBN CORNELL:31924091716542

This book describes the essential elements of a behavior-based safety program as well as describing some of the barriers to full implementation. The author also discusses how to evaluate supervisory performance and training methods. Drawing on his training and experience in industrial psychology and organizational behavior, Dr. Petersen presents a model for teaching safe behavior and building a safe work environment. Approaches to encouraging greater participation in safety programs are examined. The author also examines what effects stress has on safe behavior, and the need for wellness programs. Substance abuse effects on worker behavior are explored and recommendations for developing an employee assistance program in substance abuse are presented -- From website.

Recommended Reading
2001-10-01 Keys to Behavior-Based Safety Government Institutes
ISBN 9781461624899 ISBN-13 1461624894

This book provides a collection of 28 writings from Scott Geller's regular column in 'Industrial Safety and Hygiene News,' from Geller's associates at Safety Performance Solutions, and from the American Society of Safety Engineers' annual conferences. Organized into seven chapters, these writings examine real-world examples of successful behavior-based safety programs. Readers will discover tips on how to measure safety performance, how to get workers to care about safety, and how to better assess and coach safety performance using specific behavior-based tools.

Recommended Reading
2000-12-21 The Psychology of Safety Handbook CRC Press
ISBN 1566705401 ISBN-13 9781566705400

You cannot improve your organization's safety performance to enviable levels without addressing human behavior and attitude effectively. The only comprehensive reference on the psychology of the human dynamics of safety, The Psychology of Safety Handbook shows you how to apply psychology to improve safety and health in your organization. Dr. Geller provides theory, procedures, and tools to guide your organization's long-term continuous improvement. Based on Dr. Geller's bestselling The Psychology of Safety, this new and expanded Handbook gives you everything you need to decrease the frequency and severity of accidental injuries in your organization. He covers all areas of psychology directly relevant to understanding and influencing safety-related behaviors. Engineering interventions and government policy have made their mark on injury reduction. Now it is time to work with the human dynamics of injury prevention. The cause of most injuries can be attributed to at-risk behavior or insufficient safe behavior. The Psychology of Safety Handbook not only teaches principles and practical procedures for improving safety-related behaviors, but also illustrates how to increase people's willingness to use these techniques to create a Total Safety Culture. For more than three decades, Professor E. Scott Geller has taught and conducted research as a faculty member of Virginia Tech's Department of Psychology. In this capacity he has authored more than 250 research articles and over 50 books or chapters addressing the development and evaluation of behavior-change interventions to improve quality of life. He has authored seven books on managing behaviors and attitudes for occupational health and safety, including The Psychology of Safety and Working Safe. Dr. Geller is Senior Partner of Safety Performance Solutions, a leading training and consulting firm helping companies empower their employees to achieve a Total Safety Culture. He has been awarded Fellow status by the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the World Academy of Productivity and Quality. Moreover, Scott Geller has been honored with three university-wide teaching awards - every one offered by Virginia Tech.

Recommended Reading
1996-08-15 Working Safe CRC Press
ISBN 0801987326 ISBN-13 9780801987328

Leading safety authority E. Scott Geller has changed the way many corporations-large and small alike-approach workplace safety and accident/injury prevention. His effective "psychology of safety" can now be shared with your students, in Working Safe: How to Help People Actively Care for Health and Safety. The success of any corporate safety program relies on continuous involvement and participation from all employees. Working Safe's advice provides future health and safety professionals with behavioral science-inspired methods to reduce at-risk behavior, ensure safety awareness, and facilitate ongoing cooperation. While Working Safe is primarily aimed at workplace environments, Geller's knowledge can be applied to all aspects of daily life-making safety a priority in any situation.

Recommended Reading
1996-10-22 The Behavior-Based Safety Process Wiley
ISBN 047128758X ISBN-13 9780471287582

The Behavior-Based Safety Process Since the behavior-based approach to accident prevention was launched in 1980 by the author and his associates, safety performance is increasingly prominent on the agendas of many companies. Several powerful factors contribute to this trend. The widespread reorganization of personnel into work-groups that are leaner and more self-directed, the increasing importance of international competition, the growing awareness of critical environmental issues these and related factors highlight the value of any mechanism that promotes continuous improvement in safety performance. Detailing a step-by-step approach to just such a mechanism for continuous improvement, The Behavior-Based Safety Process is a path-breaking guide that represents an important resource for anyone concerned with performance related issues in the workplace. As the title indicates, the focus is on process versus programs. The reason is simple: off-the-shelf safety imposed from the top down does not meet the safety needs of most organizations. This fact has been abundantly demonstrated in facility after facility throughout the 1970s and 1980s. In genuinely meeting the need for continuous improvement in safety performance, the behavior-based approach presents many parallels with the quality improvement process. Both of these approaches use scientific methods to identify, measure, and provide feedback on upstream factors of excellence. In the case of the behavior-based approach to safety, these upstream factors are critical behaviors that are the leading indicators of safety performance in the organization, targeting areas of concern in advance of even first-aid incidents. For an in-depth treatment of how to integrate behavioral and statistical methodologies, see the author s companion volume from Van Nostrand Reinhold: Employee-Driven Systems for Safe Behavior. In addition to presenting these parallels with quality. The Behavior-Based Safety Process also provides powerful techniques aimed at implementation issues: organizational development, trainer-training, and employee involvement. The author and his associates developed these techniques over a decade of consultation with a variety of industries, working closely in that time with such safety leaders as Monsanto, Shell Chemical Company, ARCO Chemical, ALCOA, Rohm and Haas, Scott Paper Company, Georgia Gulf Corporation, The Pillsbury Company, and Chevron U.S.A.

Module Resources

Non ISBN Literary Resources

Scott & Krista Geller (2017) Actively Caring for People's Safety - How to Cultivate a Brother's/Sister's Keeper Work Culture. American Society of Safety Engineers

Shawn M. Galloway (2017) Lean Behavior-Based Safety - BBS for Todays Realities Sce Press

Tim Marsh (2017) A Definitive Guide to Behavioural Safety Taylor & Francis

Tim Marsh (Psychologist) (2013) Talking Safety. Gower Publishing Ltd.

Ronald J. Burke, Sharon Clarke, Cary L. Cooper (2011) Occupational Health and Safety - Psychological and Behavioural Aspects of Risk Gower Publishing Ltd.

Lincoln H. Forbes, Syed M. Ahmed (2010) Modern Construction: Lean Project Delivery and Integrated Practices CRC Press

Dominic Cooper (2009) Behavioral Safety: A Framework for Success BSMS Incorporated

Jeremy Stranks (2007) Human Factors and Behavioural Safety. Routledge

Jeffrey Scott Hickman (2007) Impact of Behavior-based Safety Techniques on Commercial Motor Vehicle Drivers Transportation Research Board

Keith Miller (2006) Principles of Everyday Behavior Analysis. Wadsworth Publishing Company

Dan Petersen (2001) Safety Management: A Human Approach American Society of Safety Engineers

Scott Geller (2001) Keys to Behavior-Based Safety Government Institutes

Scott Geller (2000) The Psychology of Safety Handbook. CRC Press.

Scott Geller (1996) Working Safe. CRC Press.

Thomas Krause (1996) The Behavior-Based Safety Process. Wiley

Class Materials: Reports, Case Studies,  Journal Articles, etc

Journal Resources

Journal of Safety Research

Professional Safety Journal

URL Resources

Other Resources

Students will be given access to handouts, relevant reports and research reports on the moodle page for this module.

Additional Information