PSYC08025 2019 Research Methods for Psychology
Recognising the methodologically diversity of current psychological research this module takes a broad approach exploring the key theoretically assumptions which underpin the positivist, or, quantitative method of inquiry and the interpretative, or, qualitative method. Exploring the advantages and disadvantages of the respective methodological paradigms, the application of mixed methods as a pragmatic way of using both approaches will be discussed. The topics of research design, sampling, data collection, problem definition, analysis, inference issues and validity within both the quantitative and qualitative paradigms will be examined and debated. Throughout the course emphasis will be placed on students’ acquiring the methodologically skills to successfully design their own research project. Through participation in research practice based workshops and laboratory work students will acquire the competency and practical skills, to analyse both qualitative and quantitative data with appropriate computer software.
On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;
Understand the key theoretical assumptions which underpin positivist and interpretative methods of enquiry.
Discuss the methodologically weaknesses and strengths of qualitative and quantitative methods of enquiry in the field of psychology.
Demonstrate an understanding of key issues as they relate to research design in qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods research project.
Demonstrate a competency in analysing quantitative and qualitative research data.
Discuss the ethical dilemmas that may be involved when undertaking research in the field of psychology.
Design and present a research proposal to the required professional standard.
Teaching and Learning Strategies
Material will be covered through lecturing and class-based discussion. Through participation in research practice based workshops and laboratory work, students will acquire the competency and practical skills, to analysis both qualitative and quantitative data with appropriate computer software.
Module Assessment Strategies
Assessment 1: Quantitative Research Report (30%)
Students will complete a structured Quantitative Research Report which will demonstrate the quantitative data analysis skills learned in the module.
Assessment 2: Qualitative Research Report (30%)
Students will complete a structured Quantitative Research Report which will demonstrate the qualitative data analysis skills learned in the module.
Assessment 3: Psychology Research Proposal (40%)
Students will complete a Psychology Research Proposal based on their learning from the module. This Psychology Research Proposal will incorporate a theoretical and contemporary psychology-based research literature driven rationale for the subsequent Research Aims and Research Hypotheses/Research Questions. There will be a clear Method section to include aspects such as sampling, draft research instruments (such as a survey or interview schedule), procedure, data analysis, and ethical considerations.
As per Department guidelines. Repeat requirements will be dependent on failed components.
- Principles and origins of positivist and interpretive research.
- Ethical considerations in psychology research.
- Research design in psychological studies: Sampling, data collection, problem definition, analysis, inference and validity.
- Working with quantitative data: Descriptive and inferential statistics, parametric and non-parametric test, confidence intervals, analysis of variance and linear regression.
- Working with qualitative data: Case study, observation, ethnography, inductive and deductive qualitative interviewing. Thematic analysis, grounded theory, narrative analysis, discourse analysis and interpretative phenomenological approaches.
- Mixed methods research: Methodological and analytical issues.
- Analysis of qualitative and quantitative data with computer software.
Coursework & Assessment Breakdown
|Title||Type||Form||Percent||Week||Learning Outcomes Assessed|
|1||Quantitative Research Report||Continuous Assessment||Assessment||30 %||Any||1,2,3,4,5|
|2||Qualitative Research Report||Continuous Assessment||Assessment||30 %||Any||1,2,3,4,5|
|3||Psychology Research Proposal||Continuous Assessment||Assessment||40 %||Any||5,6|
Full Time Mode Workload
|Laboratory Practical||Computer Laboratory||Laboratory Practical||2||Weekly||2.00|
Braun, V. & Clarke, V. (2014). Successful qualitative research: A practical guide for beginners. London, UK: Sage.
Coolican, H. (2014). Research methods and statistics in psychology (6th ed.). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS statistics (4th ed.). London, UK: Sage.
Flick, U. (2014). An introduction to qualitative research (5th ed.). London, UK: Sage.
Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS: Survival manual (6th ed.). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., Nicholls, C. & Ormston, R. (2014). Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers. London, UK: Sage.
Berg, B. & Lune, H. (2012). Qualitative research methods for the social sciences. Harlow, UK: Pearson.
Hinton, P. R. (2014). Statistics explained (3rd ed.). Hove, UK: Routledge.
Howitt, D. & Cramer, D. (2008). Introduction to statistics in psychology (4th ed.). Gosport, UK: Ashford Colour Press Limited.
Howitt, D. & Cramer, D. (2011). Introduction to SPSS in psychology: For version 19 and earlier. Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall.
Marshall, C. & Rossman, G. (2011). Designing qualitative research. London, UK: Sage.
Salkind, N. J. (2011). Statistics for people who (think they) hate statistics (4th ed.). London, UK: Sage.
Seale, C., Gobo, G., Gubrium, J. & Silverman, D. (2012). Qualitative research practice. London, UK: Sage.
Silverman, D. (2013). Doing qualitative research. London, UK: Sage.
Silverman, D. (2011a). Interpreting qualitative data: A guide to the principles of qualitative research. London, UK: Sage.
Silverman, D. (2011b). Qualitative research: Issues of theory, method and practice (3rd ed.). London, UK: Sage.
Tisdall, K. & Davis, J. (2009). Researching with children and young people. London, UK: Sage.
Willig, C. (2008). Introducing qualitative research in psychology (2nd ed.). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press/McGraw-Hill.
Dancey, C. P. & Reidy, J. (2011). Statistics without maths for psychology (5th ed.). Harlow, UK: Prentice Hall.
Gavin, H. (2008). Understanding research methods and statistics in psychology. London, UK: Sage.
Greene, J. & D’Oliveira, M. (2005). Learning to use statistical tests in psychology (3rd ed.). London, UK: Open University Press.
Lindsey, J. K. (1999). Revealing statistical principles. London, UK: Hodder Education Publishers.
Mayers, A. (2013). Introduction to statistics and SPSS in psychology. Harlow, UK: Pearson Education Limited.
Tufte, E. R. (2001). The visual display of quantitative information (2nd ed.). Connecticut, US: Graphics Press.
Additional Reading Suggestions: Research Design
Bowling, A. (2014). Research methods in health: Investigating health and health services (4th ed.). Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Boyce, J. (2004). Marketing research (2nd ed.). Boston, US: McGraw-Hill.
Cone, J. & Foster, S. (2006). Dissertations and theses from start to finish (2nd ed.). Washington, US: American Psychological Association.
Goodwin, C. J. (2012). Research in psychology: Methods and design (7th ed.). New York, US: John Wiley.
Harris, P. (2008). Designing and reporting experiments in psychology (3rd ed.). Maidenhead, UK: Open University Press.
Polgar, S. & Thomas, S. A. (2013). Introduction to research in the health sciences (6th ed.). Edinburgh, UK: Churchill Livingstone.
Stangor, C. (2006). Research methods for the behavioural sciences (3rd ed.). Boston, US: Houghton Mifflin.
Tharenou, P., Donohue, R. & Cooper, B. (2007). Management research methods. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Additional Reading Suggestions: Questionnaire Design
De Vaus, D. A. (2014). Surveys in social research (6th ed.). Sydney, Australia: Allen & Unwin.
Dawis, R. V. (1987). Scale construction. Journal of Counselling Psychology, 34, 481-489. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.1241
DeVellis, R. F. (2012). Scale development: Theory and applications (3rded.). Thousand Oaks, California, US: Sage.
Gable, R. K. & Wolf, M. B. (1993). Instrument development in the affective domain: Measuring attitudes and values in corporate and school settings. Boston, US: Kluwer Academic.
Kline, P. (1986). A handbook of test construction. New York, US: Methuen.
Kline, T. J. B. (2005). Psychological testing: A practical approach to design and evaluation. Thousand Oaks, California, US: Sage.
Robinson, J. P., Shaver, P. R. & Wrightsman, L. S. (1991). Measures of personality and social psychological attitudes. Hillsdale, NJ, US: Academic Press.
Streiner, D. L. & Norman, G. R. (2015). Health measurement scales: A practical guide to their development and use (5th ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Additional Reading Suggestions: Basic Statistics
Barton, B. & Peat, J (2014). Medical Statistics: A guide to data analysis and critical appraisal. Oxford, UK: John Wiley and Sons.
Cooper, D. R. & Schindler, P. S. (2013). Business research methods (12th ed.). Boston, US: McGraw-Hill.
Gravetter, F. J. & Wallnau, L .B. (2012). Statistics for the behavioural sciences (9th ed.). Belmont, CA, US: Wadsworth.
Norman, G. R. & Streiner, D. L. (2014). Biostatistics: The bare essentials (4th ed.). Shelton, CT, US: People's Medical Publishing House.
Motulsky, H. (2013). Intuitive biostatistics: A nonmathematical guide to statistical thinking (3rd ed.). New York, US: Oxford University Press.
Pagano, R. R. (2013). Understanding statistics in the behavioural sciences (10th ed.). Belmont, CA, US: Wadsworth.
Peat, J. (2001). Health science research: A handbook of quantitative methods. Sydney, US: Allen & Unwin.
Additional Reading Suggestions: Advanced Statistics
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ, US: Pearson Education.
Pett, M. A., Lackey, N. R., & Sullivan, J .J. (2003). Making sense of factor analysis: The use of factor analysis for instrument development in health care research. Thousand Oaks, California, US: Sage.
Stevens, J. (2009). Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences (5th ed.). Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Tabachnick, B. G. & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, US: Pearson Education.
Additional Reading Suggestions: Basic General Qualitative Research
Barbour, R. (2014). Introducing qualitative research: A student’s guide (2nd ed.). London, UK: Sage.
Butler-Kisber, L. (2010). Qualitative inquiry: Thematic, narrative and arts-informed perspectives. London, UK: Sage.
Creswell, J. (2013). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. London, UK: Sage.
Denzin, N. & Lincoln, Y. (2013). Strategies of qualitative inquiry. London, UK: Sage.
Behaviour Research Methods: https://link.springer.com/journal/13428
British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)2044-8317
Discourse Analysis Online: https://extra.shu.ac.uk/daol/index.html
Discourse Studies: https://uk.sagepub.com/en-gb/eur/journal/discourse-studies
Field Methods: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/journal/field-methods
Frontiers – Quantitative Psychology and Measurement: http://journal.frontiersin.org/journal/all/section/quantitative-psychology-and-measurement#
Grounded Theory Review: An International Journal: http://groundedtheoryreview.com/
International Journal of Psychology: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/pijp20#.Vk-BTtKrRpg
International Journal of Qualitative Methods: https://journals.library.ualberta.ca/ijqm/index.php/IJQM/index
Journal of Applied Behavioural Science: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/the-journal-of-applied-behavioral-science/journal200967
Journal of Contemporary Ethnography: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/journal/journal-contemporary-ethnography
Journal of the American Statistical Association: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uasa20#.Vk-%20BitKrRpg
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society): http://rss.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-985X/
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Statistical Methodology): http://rss.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-9868/
Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series C (Applied Statistics): http://rss.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/hub/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1467-9876/
Journal of Mathematical Psychology: https://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-mathematical-psychology/
Journal of Multivariate Analysis: https://www.journals.elsevier.com/journal-of-multivariate-analysis
Journal of Nonparametric Statistics:http://www.tandfonline.com/toc/gnst20/current
Narrative Inquiry: https://benjamins.com/catalog/ni
Qualitative Health Research: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/journal/qualitative-health-research
Qualitative Inquiry: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/journal/qualitative-inquiry
Qualitative Psychology: https://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/qua/
Qualitative Research: https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/qualitative-research/journal201501
Qualitative Research in Psychology: https://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uqrp20
Quantitative Psychology: http://www.apa.org/research/tools/quantitative/
Quality and Quantity: International Journal of Methodology: https://www.springer.com/political+science/journal/11135
Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal:
The Psychological Society of Ireland (PSI) has many useful resources for students including the PSI's Code of Professional Ethics, resources such as writing style and links to publications and journals. (https://www.psychologicalsociety.ie/).
The British Psychological Society (BPS) has various sections providing resources such as the BPS Research Digest, links to journals, publications and ethical guidelines. (www.bps.org.uk).
The American Psychological Association (APA) has various divisions and useful resources for students and practitioners. The website provides resources such as writing style and ethical guidelines, links to publications and journals. (www.apa.org)