HYD08011 2019 Fluids
This module is designed to develop a detailed understanding of the theory of fluid mechanics. It has also been designed to provide the student with sufficient tools and knowledge to be able to solve real problems relating to pipelines systems, output torque and power and turbomachinary.
Learning Outcomes
On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;
Define , derive and manipulate the concepts of pressure, hydrostatic and buoyancy. Apply principles to solving problems involving same.
Derive, manipulate and apply the theoretical concepts which underline basic fluid properties. Apply principals to solving problems involving same.
Define derive and manipulate the concepts relating to unsteady flow and compressible flow in pipeline networks. Apply principles to solving problems relating to the same.
Define derive and manipulate equations relation to pump similarity and multispeed pumps. Apply principles to solving problems relating to the same.
Define derive and manipulate equations relating to turbine design. Apply principles to solving problems relating to same.
Use standard hydraulic engineering equipment to perform experiments in teams, observe and record data and experimental evidence.
Compile and report in a clear concise manner the findings and results of laboratory experiments.
Teaching and Learning Strategies
Lecture and practicals
Module Assessment Strategies
Practical reports, assessment and exam
Repeat Assessments
Resubmit practicals and resit exam
Module Dependencies
Indicative Syllabus
Two dimensional flow: The Euler equation, flow fields, stream function, stream tube particle paths, streak lines, potential function, rotational and ir-rotational flow, circulation and vorticity, Stress stain relationships in Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids.
Application of dimensional flow. General dynamic equations along and normal to a streamline. The velocity potential function in steady tow dimensional flow. Flows occurring from simple combinations of a uniform stream , source and sink doublet and point vortex. Flow around a cylinder and strut with circulation. Estimation of lift forces and drag forces. Coefficient of lift and drag, estimation of stagnation angle.
Hydrostatic and Buoyancy. Derive relationship between hydrostatic thrust and depth to centroid of area, derive relationship between centre of pressure and second moment of area, derive equation relating horizontal hydrostatic thrust to second moment of area of submerged object, derive relationship relating vertical hydrostatic thrust to displaced volume. Estimate hydrostatic thrust adn turning moment of submerged curved sluice gates. Derive equation relating metacentric height to second moment of area. Estimate the stability of floating body , estimate the angle of tilt of a floating body. Estimate the stability and time of oscillation of vessels and pontoons containing fluid.
Viscosity: Ideal fluids, non-Newtonian fluids, Newtonian fluids, pseudo plastic fluids. Viscosity and oiled bearings, torque and output power from a shaft. estimation of viscosity using a falling sphere viscometer and relating spring viscometer.
Flow in pipe networks: Boundary layer theory. rough and smooth pipe law, influences of pipe roughness on boundary layer theory., factors affecting boundary layer transition. Boundary separation and wake formation. The universal resistance diagram and boundary layer theory. The D'arcy Colebrook White equation, modelling of pipe networks using the nodal and loop ( Hardy Cross) methods. Design pipeline sizes for given demand flows.
Unsteady flow in pipelines: Definition of unsteady flow, surge pressure in incompressible fluids, surge pressure in rigid pipelines, velocity of transmission of a pressure wave, surge in flexible pipes, surge in thin walled pressure vessels. Design of surge tanks.
Compressible flow in pipelines: Bernoulli's equation for incompressible flow, Mach Number, stagnation pressure and temperature, isentropic flow of a perfect gas, estimation of gas flow velocities and flow rates through orifice plates and convergent nozzles.
Modelling and similarity. Dynamic, kinematic and geometric similarity, Buckingham Pie Theorem, dimensional analyses, dimensionless pump characteristics, pump similarity equations.
Pump and Turbine Impeller Design. Euler turbine equation. Design of pump impellers for axial, mixed flow and centrifugal pumps, design of reaction turbine impellers. Frances turbines, Kaplan turbines. Turbine specific speed. Impulse turbine design, the Betz limit, power output from a wind turbine, wind turbine efficiency and selection, estimation of power output from a Pelton wheel.
Multispeed pumps: Manipulation of pump curves using multispeed pumps. Estimation of lifetime cost of pumping for a multispeed pump. Motor efficiency, mechanical efficiency and hydraulic efficiency of a pump. Multistage pumps. Specific speed of a pump. Pump sump design. Design of pump sumps.
Practicals:
1) Determine the metacentric height stability of a floating pontoon.
2) Determine the viscosity of four fluids using the stokes viscometer.
3) Estimate the hydraulic gradient, friction factor, friction losses and hence estimate the stagnation lift in a siphon pipeline.
4) Determine the mechanical efficiency, motor efficiency, hydraulic efficiency and overall efficiency of a pump operating at at various pump speeds.
5) Determine the efficiency and output power of a Pelton wheel.
6) Estimate the drag and lift coefficient on a wing section using CFD software for various flow rates (SOLIDWORKS CFD).
Coursework & Assessment Breakdown
Coursework Assessment
Title | Type | Form | Percent | Week | Learning Outcomes Assessed | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
1 | Continuous Assessment | Continuous Assessment | UNKNOWN | 20 % | OnGoing | 6,7 |
2 | Practical Evaluation | Continuous Assessment | UNKNOWN | 10 % | OnGoing | 1,2,3,4,5 |
End of Semester / Year Assessment
Title | Type | Form | Percent | Week | Learning Outcomes Assessed | |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
1 | Final Exam | Final Exam | UNKNOWN | 70 % | Week 15 | 1,2,3,4,5 |
Full Time Mode Workload
Type | Location | Description | Hours | Frequency | Avg Workload |
---|---|---|---|---|---|
Lecture | Lecture Theatre | Fluid Mechanics Theory | 3 | Weekly | 3.00 |
Laboratory Practical | Engineering Laboratory | Practical | 1 | Weekly | 1.00 |
Independent Learning | UNKNOWN | Study/ Recommended Reading | 4 | Weekly | 4.00 |
Module Resources
Recommended Reading
Authors |
Title |
Publishers |
Year |
Y. Cengel and M. Boles |
Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach |
McGraw-Hill |
2005 |
J.F. Douglas, J.M. Gasiorek and J.A. Swaffield |
Fluid Mechanics |
Prentice-Hall |
2006 |
L. Hamill |
Understanding Hydraulics |
Palgrave Macmillan |
2001 |
Edward Rubin |
Introduction to engineering and the environment. |
McGraw-Hill |
2001 |
Godfrey Boyle |
Renewable Energy |
Oxford University Press |
2004 |
None