# ENRG08005 2019 Energy Systems 1

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**Description**

Energy Systems builds on the knowledge of heat and fluids from Engineering Physics 1 and is focused on the subjects of Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.

The thermodynamics section has been designed to provide the student with building blocks tools and knowledge to solve basic real world power and efficiency problems.

Fluid mechanics is strongly biased towards the requirements of mechanical engineering, manipulation of force vectors understanding of pressures, hydraulic gradients, principles of fluid flow and forces exerted by fluids.

### Learning Outcomes

*On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;*

**1.**

Know the importance of thermodynamics in engineering and technology and be able to define heat, temperature, energy and other related thermodynamic terms.

**2.**

Describe the zeroth, first, second and third laws of thermodynamics, and solve related problems with reference to energy, enthalpy, and entropy.

**3.**

Solve elementary heat transfer problems involving conduction, convection and radiation.

**4.**

Perform simple combustion chemical analysis to determine the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio for commonly used fuels.

**5.**

Be able to calculate and measure pressure within static fluids and solve related problems such as; pressure with elevation; determine fluid force on submerged body.

**6.**

Introduce fluid flow, including types of flow, classical derivations, describe viscosity, laminar and turbulent flow, boundary layer.

**7.**

Apply the Bernoulli equation to a variety of real world fluid flow situations

**8.**

Determine or estimate frictional effects and losses within fluid flows

### Teaching and Learning Strategies

This module will be delivered primarily by lecture where key concepts will be explained and followed through with graded exercises leading on to practical problem examples. The lectures will be supplemented via a seld learning assignment, and tutorial sessions. During these sessions, students are encouraged to work in groups to develop their communication and teamwork skills. Lecture notes will be available in the Virtual Learning Environment (Moodle). Note taking in class is of importance, as some lecture content may not be detailed in the lecture slides.

Two mini-assignments relating to Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics will form a self-learning component of the module.

### Module Assessment Strategies

This subject will be assessed by two minor projects and end of term assessment.

### Repeat Assessments

Repeat assessment will be by way of sitting another examination on the subject. Alternatively, at the discretion of the lecturer, assignments covering the deficient areas of the course may be set.

### Indicative Syllabus

__Thermodynamics__

**Fundamentals:** origin of thermodynamics, temperature, work and heat transfer.

**Thermodynamics Laws: **zeroth law, first law - enthalpy, second law - entropy: Kelvin-Planck and Clausius statements, third law.

**Chemical reactions:** what is combustion, common fuels, stoichiometry, combustion equations, air/fuel ratios.

**Heat Transfer:** ** conduction;** Fourier's law,

**Newton's law of cooling.**

*Convection;***Stefan-Boltzmann law, emissivity.**

*Radiation;***Fluid Mechanics**

**Fundamentals: **definition of fluid, pressure; units of pressure, gauge pressure, atmospheric pressure, absolute pressure. Vapour pressure, relative density, surface tension, capillary action, bulk modulus, compressibility and incompressibility.

**Basic fluid statics: **Pascal's law, variation of pressure with position.

**Pressure measurement:** Piezometers, manometers, differential manometers pitot tubes, Bourdon gauge, pressure transducers, barometer: mercury filled, aneroid.

**Forces on submerged surface:** plane surface, method of sections and estimation of depth to centre of pressure.

**Buoyancy:** buoyancy forces. Archemedes principle, stability of floating bodies, metacentre, centre of buoyancy.

**Viscosity: **Newton's law of viscosity, dynamic viscosity, kinematic viscosity, units of viscosity, viscosity and oiled bearings.

**Laminar and turbulent flow:** Reynolds number,Laminar flow , turbulent flow, Reynolds number. Viscous flow, non-viscous flow.

**Basic flow equations: ** Volumetric flow rate, mass flow rates, Continuity equation, Bernoulli's equation, total energy line, hydraulic grade line, hydraulic gradient.

**Laminar flow in pipes: **Typical Laminar flow fluids, velocity profile, estimation of pipe losses in laminar flow (Hagen-Poiseuille's equation).

**Turbulent flow in pipes:** Typical Turbulent flow fluids, energy loss (Darcy's formula), friction factor, shock losses in pipelines, Borda-Carnot equation.

**Lab Classes**

1) Pressure measurement using a piezometer, manometer and Bourdon gauge

2) Estimation of the Hydrostatic thrust on a submerged object.

3) Estimate Reynolds Number for a laminar, transitional and turbulent flow.

4) Estimate the hydraulic gradient in a pipe section for a number of flow rates.

### Coursework & Assessment Breakdown

**Coursework & Continuous Assessment**

**End of Semester / Year Formal Exam**

### Coursework Assessment

Title | Type | Form | Percent | Week | Learning Outcomes Assessed | |
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1 | Mini Assignments | Continuous Assessment | Assignment | 30 % | OnGoing | 2,3,4,6,7,8 |

### End of Semester / Year Assessment

Title | Type | Form | Percent | Week | Learning Outcomes Assessed | |
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1 | Final Exam | Final Exam | Closed Book Exam | 70 % | End of Term | 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 |

### Full Time Mode Workload

Type | Location | Description | Hours | Frequency | Avg Workload |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Lecture | Flat Classroom | Lecture | 4 | Weekly | 4.00 |

Laboratory Practical | Engineering Laboratory | Practical Laboratory Class | 1 | Weekly | 1.00 |

### Required & Recommended Book List

**Required Reading**

2007

*Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach*McGraw Hill

**Required Reading**

2009

*Fundamentals of Thermodynamics*Wiley

**Required Reading**

2006

*Introduction to Heat Transfer,*Wiley

**Recommended Reading**

2012-05-15

*Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics*Wiley

ISBN 1118116135 ISBN-13 9781118116135