BIOL07013 2019 Immunodiagnostics

General Details

Full Title
Immunodiagnostics
Transcript Title
Immunodiagnostics
Code
BIOL07013
Attendance
N/A %
Subject Area
BIOL - Biology
Department
LIFE - Life Sciences
Level
07 - NFQ Level 7
Credit
05 - 05 Credits
Duration
Semester
Fee
Start Term
2019 - Full Academic Year 2019-20
End Term
9999 - The End of Time
Author(s)
Tony McCabe
Programme Membership
SG_SBIOM_B07 201900 Bachelor of Science in Biomedical Science SG_SMEDI_H08 201900 Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Science in Medical Biotechnology
Description

The immunodiagnostics module introduces students to the application of antibodies for the purpose of diagnosis. The structures of antibodies and antigens are introduced and the different classifications of antibodies (such as mono- or polyclonal) and their relevance are discussed. Tissue type and sampling in immunodiagnostic testing is outlined along with antibody conjugation, types of output, signal detection, dynamic range and signal amplification. Antibody validation is addressed in relation to titering, specificity and sensitivity issues for testing. Common applications, assay types and future applications are also discussed.

Learning Outcomes

On completion of this module the learner will/should be able to;

1.

Define immunodiagnostics and relate the structure, biochemistry and production of Immunoglobulins and antigens to testing.

2.

Describe the methods of antibody conjugation, signal outputs, signal amplification and patient sampling commonly used in immunodiagnostic testing.

3.

Recognise and evaluate the QC issues pertinent to immunodiagnostic techniques and the interplay between dynamic range, sensitivity and specificity.

4.

Identify applications of immunodiagnostics and detail current and future applications.

5.

Demonstrate key immunodiagnostic concepts and execute common laboratory assays, which are used in immunodiagnostics.

6.

Analyse and report experimental concepts and data.

Teaching and Learning Strategies

The module contact time will be split evenly between lectures and laboratory time.

Contact time will contain some tutorial elements which will be used to help students address problem topics and answer questions and provide feedback on assessments.

Lectures can comprise of elements such as: Powerpoint presentations, videos, articles for study and discussion on relevant topics.

The moodle platform will be used as a repository for course material.

Active Learning:

Students will be asked to read around and contextualize relevant articles and topics.

Students will be required to research relevant information for the production of experimental reports.

Tutorials:

Occasional time will be set aside for tutorials will allow time for students to discuss the quizzes and assessments in a face to face format during which problems can be addressed and additional explanations provided. 

Small group writing tutorials will be provided for students who require additional help in constructing elements of reports (for example data presentation).

 

Laboratory work:

Students will execute relevant experimental procedures within groups. When possible, students also work individually in the laboratory on certain experiments.

The laboratory classes are preceded by introductory lectures, so students are aware of the research question at hand, requirements, learning outcomes and any relevant health and safety concerns. Students are encouraged to raise learning issues, particularly with new techniques.

Module Assessment Strategies

This module has an end of semester exam worth 50% and a laboratory element worth 50%.

The students’ performance will be evaluated through formative and summative assessments. 

Formative assessment:

The formative assessments may be delivered in class and through online quizzes so students can check their own progress. Assessments will be provided on an on-going basis throughout the semester and can be taken at a time of the students’ choosing. Typically, they will be made available at the end of particular topics during the module. Online quizzes and review questions and crosswords are provided on the moodle platform, students can access these resources at any time once made available.

Quizzes will be designed in accordance to Bloom’s taxonomy, assessing elements relevant to the level 7 module status.

Summative assessment:

Module theory will be assessed through an end of semester exam worth 50% of the module. Relevant elements of the module theory, pertaining to testing for example, will also be assessed during practical evaluation, entailing short quizzes on the practical applications of the module. The laboratory element of the module (50%) will undergo a Practical Evaluation over 4.5 weeks of the semester (or 26 hour equivalent). This evaluation will assess students’ basic laboratory skills and professional attitude, the students’ data presentation and analysis skills as well as their dissemination skills through submission of reports or individual report elements such as abstracts.

The moodle platform will be used by students to upload assignments and used in combination with Turnitin sorftware.

Students, particularly those from overseas. can avail of remote proctoring of exams.

The student must reach an assigned mark in the final exam and achieve 40% overall to pass the module. The student must attend a minimum of 75% in the laboratory element of the module or they may be required to repeat and re-attend the module.

Repeat Assessments

If a student fails to achieve 40% in the module they will be required to resit the exam, resubmit or submit laboratory reports, write a theory assignment or a combination of these.

Indicative Syllabus

Define immunodiagnostics and relate the structure, biochemistry and production of Immunoglobulins and antigens to testing.

Antigen and antibody types. Antibody production.

 

Describe the methods of antibody conjugation, signal outputs, signal amplification and patient sampling commonly used in immunodiagnostic testing.

Bioconjugation. Signal outputs and amplification. Tissues used in testing.

 

Recognise and evaluate the QC issues pertinent to immunodiagnostic techniques and the interplay between dynamic range, sensitivity and specificity.

Antibody affinity specificity, sensitivity and dynamic range.

 

Identify applications of immunodiagnostics and detail current and future applications.

Common applications such as ELISA, immunohistochemistry and immunocytology.

Quantum dots, aptamers and multianalyte testing.

 

Demonstrate key immunodiagnostic concepts and execute common laboratory assays, which are used in immunodiagnostics.

Antibody titration, blocking and detection. Common assays such as ELISA, Dot blot and western blotting.

 

Analyse and report experimental concepts and data.

Presentation of data through elements such as abstracts, introductions and discussions, encompassing elements of graph, image and data tables.

Coursework & Assessment Breakdown

Coursework & Continuous Assessment
50 %
End of Semester / Year Formal Exam
50 %

Coursework Assessment

Title Type Form Percent Week Learning Outcomes Assessed
1 Quiz Formative Assessment - % OnGoing 1,2,3,4
2 Laboratory work Practical Practical Evaluation 50 % OnGoing 2,5,6
             

End of Semester / Year Assessment

Title Type Form Percent Week Learning Outcomes Assessed
1 Final Exam Theory Exam Final Exam Closed Book Exam 50 % End of Semester 1,2,3,4
             
             

Full Time Mode Workload


Type Location Description Hours Frequency Avg Workload
Lecture Lecture Theatre Theory delivery and tutorials 2 Weekly 2.00
Practical Science Laboratory Laboratory work 2 Weekly 2.00
Independent Learning Not Specified Study 3 Weekly 3.00
Total Full Time Average Weekly Learner Contact Time 4.00 Hours

Required & Recommended Book List

Recommended Reading
1999 Immunodiagnostics Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN 0199635889 ISBN-13 9780199635887

Immunodiagnostic tests are analytical methods that use antibodies as reagents whose results are used to aid diagnosis and are widely used in many scientific disciplines and in many different ways. Perhaps the most widespread and obvious use is in clinical applications, but immunodiagnostic tests are also used in other fields such as forensic science and environmental and food analysis. The different types of test range from simple manual methods to fully automated systems with sophisticated integrated detection. Immunodiagnostics: A Practical Approach starts off by explaining the principles and development of immunodiagnostic tests, specifically the use of radioisotopes as tracers. Chapter 2 explains the use of solid-phase supports to bind immunoreagents. Enzymes are widely used as labels in immunoassays and their use with colourimetric, fluorimetric, and chemiluminescent detection systems is described. The use of enzymes as labels reflects the move away from radioisotopes and one of the most powerful non- radioisotopic procedures is the time-resolved fluorescence assay. Enzymes can also be used as a simple method of obtaining high performance from immunodiagnostics and this application is covered later in the book. The next set of techniques to be described are light scattering techniques, which can be used in either simple manual assays or in sophisticated automated procedures. The penultimate chapter describes the principles of automation of immunodiagnostic tests. The last topic to be discussed is that of quality assurance.

Module Resources

Non ISBN Literary Resources

Edwards, R: "Immunodiagnostics− A Practical Approach".

The Immunoassay Handbook by David Wild Ed.: 4th ed. Oxford : Elsevier Science. 2013. Available as e-book through IT Sligo library.

Antibodies : Applications and New Development by​​​​​​ Meulenberg, Eline P. 2012.  Available as e-book through IT Sligo library.

Journal Resources

Specific articles will be suggested to the students rather than journals.

URL Resources

https://www.rndsystems.com/resources/articles

http://www.bio-rad.com/en-ie/category/antibodies?ID=N8TRV715

https://www.abcam.com/protocols/antibody-methods-and-techniques

http://www.ihcworld.com/

www.biocompare.com

Other Resources

https://www.mendeley.com/guides/harvard-citation-guide

Webinars:

https://www.cellsignal.com/contents/resources-videos-and-webinars/webinar-antibody-validation-roundtable-specificity-sensitivity-reproducibility-validation/webinars-avr-ssr-validation

Moodle:

IT Sligo moodle page for module Immunodiagnostics.